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Lyme Disease

November 3, 2023 - Ticks

Author - Tom Miche

lyme disease

Lyme disease, also known as Lyme borreliosis, is a complex and potentially debilitating illness caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and transmitted to humans through the bite of infected black-legged ticks, commonly known as deer ticks or Ixodes scapularis. This disease is primarily prevalent in North America, Europe, and Asia. Lyme disease is a multisystemic condition that can affect various organ systems, leading to a wide range of symptoms.

The clinical manifestations of Lyme disease typically progress through stages. In the early stages, individuals may experience flu-like symptoms, such as fever, fatigue, headache, and muscle aches. A characteristic hallmark of Lyme disease is the erythema migrans rash, which appears as a red, expanding circular rash with central clearing resembling a "bull's-eye." This rash occurs in a majority of cases.

If left untreated, the infection can progress to the later stages of the disease. This may lead to more severe symptoms, including joint pain, neurological issues like Bell's palsy or meningitis, cardiac abnormalities, and cognitive impairments. In rare cases, chronic Lyme disease can develop, causing persistent symptoms and complications.

Lyme disease diagnosis can be challenging due to its variable and nonspecific symptoms. Laboratory testing, such as enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) and Western blot assays, is often used to confirm the infection. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, most commonly doxycycline or amoxicillin, with the choice of medication and duration of treatment depending on the disease stage and the patient's individual factors.

Prevention of Lyme disease primarily focuses on avoiding tick bites by using protective clothing, applying insect repellent, performing tick checks, and reducing exposure in tick-infested areas. In areas with a high prevalence of Lyme disease, vaccination may be available to reduce the risk of infection.

Lyme disease is a complex condition, and its management should be under the care of a medical professional, given its potential to cause significant health issues if not promptly diagnosed and treated. Public awareness and education about tick avoidance and early recognition of symptoms are essential in minimizing the impact of this disease on individuals and communities.

Lyme Disease Symptoms

Lyme disease can manifest a wide range of symptoms, and they may vary in severity and duration depending on the stage of the infection. Here are some of the possible symptoms associated with Lyme disease:

Early Stage Symptoms:

  • Erythema Migrans (EM) Rash: A red, expanding circular rash with central clearing, often resembling a bull's-eye. This rash occurs in many cases.

  • Flu-Like Symptoms: These may include fever, fatigue, headache, muscle and joint aches, and chills.

  • Swollen Lymph Nodes: Enlargement of lymph nodes in the vicinity of the tick bite.

Later Stage Symptoms:

  • Joint Pain: Lyme disease can lead to joint inflammation and pain, often in large joints, particularly the knees.

  • Neurological Symptoms: These can include Bell's palsy (facial muscle weakness), meningitis (inflammation of the protective membranes around the brain and spinal cord), numbness or tingling in extremities, and shooting pains.

  • Cardiac Symptoms: Some individuals may experience heart palpitations, irregular heartbeat (Lyme carditis), or chest pain.

  • Cognitive and Neuropsychiatric Symptoms: Memory problems, difficulty concentrating, mood changes, and sleep disturbances.

  • Muscle Weakness or Paralysis: Rarely, Lyme disease may lead to muscle weakness or paralysis, particularly in the later stages.

  • Eye Problems: Inflammation of the eyes can cause redness, sensitivity to light, or blurred vision.

  • Fatigue: Chronic fatigue is a common symptom in later stages of Lyme disease.

  • Skin Issues: Some individuals may develop skin problems, such as skin rashes, hives, or a bluish discoloration (acrocyanosis).

  • Heart and Lung Complications: Rarely, Lyme disease can lead to inflammation of the heart muscles (myocarditis) or lung involvement.

Not everyone with Lyme disease will experience all of these symptoms, and some individuals may have atypical or less common manifestations. Additionally, some individuals may progress to chronic Lyme disease, which can result in ongoing, varied symptoms, often mimicking other chronic illnesses.

If you suspect Lyme disease due to symptoms and have been in an area where ticks are prevalent, or if you find a tick attached to your skin, it's crucial to seek medical attention for proper diagnosis and treatment. Early detection and treatment with antibiotics are essential to prevent the disease from progressing to more severe stages.

Lyme Disease Testing

Several types of Lyme disease testing are available to diagnose the infection, and they can be broadly categorized into two main groups: serological tests and molecular tests. Here is an overview of the different types of Lyme disease testing:

Serological Tests:

Serological tests detect antibodies produced by the immune system in response to Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacterium that causes Lyme disease. These tests are commonly used to diagnose Lyme disease:

  • Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA): This initial screening test detects the presence of antibodies against Lyme disease. It's a relatively quick and cost-effective test. If the EIA result is positive or equivocal, further testing is usually recommended.

  • Western Blot: If the EIA result is positive or equivocal, a Western blot is performed as a confirmatory test. It identifies specific antibodies against different Borrelia proteins. The pattern of bands on the Western blot can help confirm the diagnosis.

  • Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA): Similar to the EIA, the IFA is another screening test that detects antibodies. It can be used in combination with other tests to increase diagnostic accuracy.

Molecular Tests:

Molecular tests directly detect the genetic material of Borrelia burgdorferi. These tests are often used to confirm the presence of the bacterium, especially in early stages:

  • Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR): PCR tests look for the DNA of Borrelia burgdorferi in a patient's blood, cerebrospinal fluid, or tissue samples. It's particularly useful in the early stages of Lyme disease when antibodies may not yet be detectable.

  • Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests (NAATs): NAATs are a group of molecular tests that amplify and detect Borrelia DNA. They are highly sensitive and specific for early Lyme disease diagnosis.

Other Tests:

  • Culture: Rarely used due to its complexity and low sensitivity, culturing Borrelia from a patient's blood, cerebrospinal fluid, or tissue is possible but not commonly employed in clinical practice.

  • Tissue Biopsy: In cases of suspected Lyme arthritis or skin lesions, a biopsy of affected tissue can be examined under a microscope for Borrelia burgdorferi.

It's essential to consider the timing of testing, as serological tests may not yield accurate results in the very early stages of infection. For accurate diagnosis, healthcare professionals often use a combination of tests, clinical assessment, and a patient's history of exposure to ticks. Interpretation of test results should be done by a qualified medical professional, as false-positive and false-negative results can occur. Lyme disease diagnosis and treatment should be guided by healthcare experts familiar with the disease's complexities.

Lyme Disease Treatment

The treatment of Lyme disease typically involves the use of antibiotics. The choice of antibiotics, as well as the duration of treatment, may vary depending on the stage of the disease and the specific symptoms. It is important to consult with a healthcare professional for a personalized treatment plan. Here is an overview of Lyme disease treatment:

Early Lyme Disease (Stage 1 and 2):

  • First-Line Antibiotics: The primary antibiotics used to treat early Lyme disease are doxycycline, amoxicillin, or cefuroxime. The choice of antibiotic depends on factors such as the patient's age, allergies, and medical history. Doxycycline is often preferred for adults, while amoxicillin is commonly used for children and pregnant women.

  • Duration: The treatment course typically lasts 10-21 days, with the specific duration determined by the severity of symptoms and the patient's response to treatment.

Disseminated or Late Lyme Disease (Stage 3):

  • First-Line Antibiotics: In cases where the infection has spread to other parts of the body or the nervous system (neurologic Lyme disease), intravenous (IV) antibiotics such as ceftriaxone may be necessary. This route ensures that the antibiotic reaches the bloodstream more effectively.

  • Duration: The treatment with IV antibiotics can last for several weeks to a month, with the exact duration determined by the severity of the infection and the patient's response.

Chronic Lyme Disease:

Chronic Lyme disease, characterized by persistent symptoms after initial treatment, is a subject of controversy and ongoing research. Treatment for chronic Lyme disease may involve extended courses of antibiotics or alternative therapies. However, the efficacy of these treatments remains a topic of debate among healthcare professionals, and they are typically considered on a case-by-case basis.

Symptomatic Treatment:

Depending on the specific symptoms, your healthcare provider may recommend medications to manage pain, inflammation, or other symptoms associated with Lyme disease.


After completing the prescribed antibiotic course, patients should follow up with their healthcare provider to ensure the infection has been successfully treated. Some symptoms may persist even after the bacteria have been eradicated, but this does not necessarily indicate ongoing infection.


Preventing tick bites is crucial to avoid Lyme disease. Use insect repellent, wear protective clothing, perform tick checks after outdoor activities, and reduce exposure in tick-infested areas.

It is essential to start treatment as early as possible for the best outcomes, as Lyme disease can lead to more severe and persistent symptoms if left untreated. Patients should closely follow their healthcare provider's advice and complete the full course of antibiotics, even if their symptoms improve before treatment is finished. If you suspect you have Lyme disease or have been bitten by a tick, seek medical attention promptly for a proper diagnosis and treatment plan.

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